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如果中日就钓鱼岛发生战争, 中国政府如何对待在中国的日本人,看看历史上 日本偷袭珍珠港,美国对日本宣战, 美国政府是如何对待生活在美国的日本人的.

 二战期间 美国本土的日裔美国人的拘留营

  
    日籍美国人被安置到拘留营途中
 


1942年2月19日,美国总统罗斯福签署行政命令 建立拘留营.把所有美籍日本人(包括在美国居住的日本人)人从他们家中搬到拘留营.

部分原文和翻译如下:

Despite intelligence that indicated otherwise, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt perceived Japanese Americans as a threat to the United States and believed that they might launch attacks or spy for their homeland. On February 19, 1942, Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066, which declared that all Japanese Americans would be removed from their homes and placed in internment camps. This order covered all of the nearly 110,000 Japanese Americans living in the United States, two-thirds of which were citizens.

The Japanese Americans had already undergone much discrimination by the United States government, including acts that prevented them from owning land, marrying outside of their race, and forced them to attend segregated schools. An act passed in 1924 had put an end to Japanese immigration to the United States, but Order 9066 was the culmination of all past discrimination and had far reaching effects.

尽管情报显示情况不同, 但富兰克林 德拉诺 罗斯福总统察觉到日裔美国人对美国是个威胁, 并相信日本人会为了他们的祖国发动进攻和从事间谍活动. 1942年2月19日, 罗斯福总统签署总统令9066号, 这个总统令宣布所有日裔美国人将从他们家迁居到拘留营去. 这一总统令涉及近11万生活在美国的日裔美国人,其中三分之二是美国公民.  更多历史资料 请到 http://www.freeinfosociety.com/article.php?id=10

一位从事这段历史研究的美国人在http://www.usprisonculture.com/blog/2012/07/14/they-came-for-the-japanese-too/  发布他的调查,

原文和翻译如下

There were 10 internment camps in the U.S. during the war and over 120,000 Japanese Americans were incarcerated in them. The history of the Tule Lake camp is particularly interesting because of who was interned there:

In early 1943, about a year after Japanese-Americans were rounded up into the camps, the American authorities, seeking Japanese language speakers in the military, distributed a loyalty questionnaire to all adults. Question No. 27 asked draft-age men whether they were willing to serve in the armed forces. No. 28 asked whether detainees would “swear unqualified allegiance to the United States” and “forswear any form of allegiance or obedience to the Japanese emperor, or any other foreign government.”

二战期间, 在美国有10个拘留营, 有12万日本人被监禁在这些地方,

1943年初, 差不多是在日裔美国人被集中在拘留营的一年之后, 美国当局寻找可以在军队中说日语的人,  美国政府向所有的成年人分发一个忠诚度问卷调查,第27个问题是问到了应征参军年龄的男人 他们是否愿意在武装部队中服役. 第28个问题是问关在拘留营里的人是否会宣示无条件地忠诚美国, 并且发誓抛弃任何形式对日本天皇或其他外国政府的的效忠和服从.

Anything except a simple “yes” to the two questions meant relocation to Tule Lake, which became the most heavily guarded of the camps. Army tanks were stationed here, reinforcing the security provided by 28 guard towers and a seven-foot-high barbed wire fence.

Osamu Hasegawa, 90, recalled that his parents answered “no” after a heated family debate. Because his parents were born in Japan — Japanese immigrants were not allowed to become American citizens until 1952 because of discriminatory immigration laws — they feared that forswearing allegiance to the country of their birth would render them stateless while Mr. Hasegawa and his American-born siblings remained in the United States. 除了回答”是” 其他的回答就意味着被安置到图乐湖拘留营(Tule Lake), 那里是重兵保守,有坦克,有28个加固的岗楼和7尺搞的铁丝网.

Osamu Hasegawa 已经 90岁了 回忆那时在家庭激烈的辩论之后 他的父母回答“不”.因为他的父母出生在日本, 日本移民在1952年之前不允许成为美国公民, 因为歧视移民的法律. 他们害怕如果发誓抛弃对他们出生国家的效忠,会让他们成为没有国家的人, 而Osamu Hasegawa  和他的在美国出生的兄弟姐妹还在美国.

After his parents answered “no,” Mr. Hasegawa became one of the nearly 6,000 Japanese-Americans at Tule Lake to renounce their American citizenship.

在他的父母回答了”不” 之后, Osamu Hasegawa 成为在图乐湖拘留营放弃美国国籍的6000 个日裔美国人中的一个.

Norman Mineta who spent 21 years in Congress. He shared his story of being 10 years old when Japan attacked Pearl Harbor in 1941. As a Japanese American, he and his family were interned in a camp:

一个曾美国国会工作21年的Norman Mineta 在日本1941年进攻珍珠港时只有10岁, 做为一个日裔美国人 他和他的家庭被关在拘留营里,

We had just come home from church when the phone started ringing. My dad was a leader in the Japanese-American community in San Jose, and people started calling to ask if we had heard about the attack that day on Pearl Harbor. We were all stunned. I’ve only seen my dad cry three times, and that day there were tears in his eyes. He loved America and had come to the United States when he was 14. He couldn’t understand why the land of his birth was attacking the land of his heart. That same day, Dec. 7, the FBI came. From behind our house we heard a neighbor’s child yelling, “The police are taking Papa away.” By the time my dad ran over there, the FBI had arrested his friend, the head of the Japanese American Association. His family didn’t hear from him for six months. The Buddhist priest was next. They were taking only community leaders. And this upset my dad, because he was not arrested. But he was close to the sheriff and the city manager and they probably told the FBI that he was OK.

他这样回忆当时所经历的情况, 我们刚刚从教堂里回到家,就听到电话开始响, 我父亲是圣何塞日裔美国人的领袖, 人们开始打电话问是否听说那天攻击珍珠港, 我们都惊呆了, 我只见到我父亲哭过三次, 那天 他的眼睛泪水, 他爱美国 , 他是14岁来美国的, 他不能理解为什么他的出生国会攻击他爱的国家, 同一天, 也就是12月7号, 联邦调查局来了, 从我们房子后面 我们听到邻居孩子的哭喊”警察把爸爸带走了”, 当我爸爸跑过去时, 联邦调查局已经把他的朋友-日裔美国人协会的头头逮捕了, 

从那天之后 有6个月他的家庭才听到他的消息, 佛教牧师是下一个遭到逮捕的, 他们只抓社区的领袖, 这个让我的父亲很不安, 因为他没有被逮捕,但是他和市警察局局长和市经理很近, 也许他们告诉FBI 他没事.

The evacuation order came on Feb. 19, 1942. Big placards were put up, telling all those of Japanese descent, “alien and non-alien,” that they would have to leave their homes for an unknown distant barracks. We lost our homes, we lost our businesses, we lost our farms, but worst of all, we lost our most basic human rights. Our own government had branded us with the unwarranted stigma of disloyalty. We were put under a curfew, from 7 p.m. to 7 a.m. There was a lot of panic. People who came to our house to see my dad were crying and wondering what was going to happen. In late January, my dad called all the family together. I was 10. He said, “I don’t know what is going to happen to your mother and me, but all of you are American citizens. Always remember this is your home.” Source: The Camps at Home. by Mineta, Norman, Newsweek, 00289604, 3/8/1999, Vol. 133, Issue 10

撤离命令是在1942年2月19日到的, 大大的牌子挂在那里, 告诉所有的日本后裔”外国的和不是外国的” 他们必须离开他们的家到一个很远的不知名子的营地.

我们失去了家, 失去了生意, 我们失去了农场, 而且最坏的是, 我们失去了最基本的人权. 我们自己的政府给我们带上了不忠诚的标识.

我们被处在管制下, 从晚7点到早7点,  巨大的恐慌, 人们来到我家里看见我父亲在苦, 不知到接下来会发生什么?  到了1月底, 我父亲召集全家人, 那时我10岁, 我父亲说”我不知道我和你妈妈会发生什么情况” 但是你们是美国公民. 永远记住这是你们的家.

原文来自:  Source: The Camps at Home. by Mineta, Norman, Newsweek, 00289604, 3/8/1999, Vol. 133, Issue 10


另一份调查的英文原文和翻译如下, 原:http://www.msad40.org/fvs/Finding_Friendship/Finding_Friendship_05/Student%20Webpages/FF_Jap_Intern_DM.html 

The United States government sent Japanese people living in America to internment, or imprisonment, camps because the United States thought these Japanese-Americans were spying for Japan. At this time, Japan was the enemy because they bombed Pearl Harbor. The US entered WW II as a result.
Two-thirds of the120,000 people imprisoned were American citizens. These Japanese-Americans lost all they had but what could be carried to the camps. Most internment camps were in the desert. Families were given one-room houses to live in and were made to stand in line for hours for food. Armed guards were on patrol at all times.
The internment camps existed beginning in 1942 and lasted until between 1944 - 1946. The internees learned to farm, started churches, schools, their own government, newspapers and clubs.
The United States government apologized 40 years later, at which time then President Ronald Reagan authorized giving $20,000 to those who were imprisoned.

美国政府把生活在美国的日本人送到到了拘留营, 或监禁. 因为美国认为日裔美国人会为日本做间谍, 当时, 日本因为轰炸珍珠港成为美国的敌人,  结果美国参加二战.

这12万送到拘留营的日本人,有3分之2是美国公民,这些日裔美国人除了能带走的, 其他东西都失去了, 这些拘留营大部分在沙漠里, 每个家庭给一个一室的房子居住,并且要排几个小时的队领取食物, 持枪的警卫24小时把守, 拘留营的存在从1942年开始,一直延续到1944-1946年. 生活在拘留营的人学习种地, 设立了自己的教堂, 学校, 和他们自己的政府,报纸和俱乐部, 美国政府在40年后为此道歉,那时 罗纳德里根授权给那些被监禁的人2万美元的补偿.

加拿大也把日裔加拿大人安置在拘留营

除了美国设立了拘留营外 , 当时的加拿大政府也是处于害怕居住在加拿大的日本人在加拿大本土进行攻击和从事间谍活动 , 在很多地方设立拘留营,

At the time, Japanese-Canadians were forced to leave their homes they had saved a lifetime for to own. Many Japanese-Canadian businesses were boycotted and many fishermen lost their fishing boats for fear they would guide enemy submarines to Canada's west coast. Most of the property was sold off at a fraction of what it was worth. Finally, Many Japanese nationals were forced to return to Japan, splitting up families and resulting in much heartache. When these factors are taken into consideration, $21,000 does not seem enough to replace homes, livlihoods and family.

那时 , 日籍的加拿大人被强制从他们的家中搬走, 很多日籍加拿大人的生意被抵制, 很多渔民失去了他们的渔船, 因为加拿大政府害怕这些船会被用来引导敌人的潜艇到加拿大的西海岸, 很多的财产只按当时价值的很小一部分出售, 最后, 很多日本人被强制送回日本, 拆散的家庭回来都是很头痛的问题,

1988, the Canadian government under Brian Mulroney formally apologized for the injustices performed against Japanese-Canadians during World War II. Along with this apology came a
payment of $21,000 (Cdn.) as compensation for the losses and suffering of Japanese-Canadians who survived the wartime detention.

1988年 加拿大政府在brian multoney 执政时的加拿大政府正式就二战期间日籍加拿大人所受的不公平道歉 并且对每个在战士拘留营幸存的日籍加拿大人给予21,,000 美元的补偿. 

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